Singapore Women's & Children's Medical Group

Common Gynaecological Procedures and Surgeries

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Gynaecological tests are used for early intervention, these include annual Pap smears, mammogram, speculum exams, as well as screening for other illnesses that women may be at risk for. These procedures are important for detecting diseases before symptoms show. It is highly encouraged for women to visit a gynaecologist at least once a year for routine checkups.

Gynaecological Exam

A gynaecological exam is a comprehensive exam to assess the overall health of a woman’s reproductive system. It may be done to identify certain illnesses, infections, or other reproductive issues. It is common to experience a little discomfort, but it shouldn’t be painful.

During the exam your provider may:

  • Push on your lower abdomen
  • Have your feet placed in stirrups
  • Perform a speculum exam, pap smear or bimanual exam
  • Ask questions about your medical history
  • If you have any questions, please make sure to ask your provider.

Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

Dilation and Curettage (D&C) is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated so that the uterine lining can be scraped with a curette (a surgical instrument designed for scraping)  to remove abnormal tissues. 

A D&C may be performed to diagnose uterine conditions such as:

  • Uterine Cancer 
  • Uterine polyps
  • Endometrial hyperplasia 

Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

A LEEP is a procedure that uses a loop of thin wire that is heated by electricity to remove abnormal tissue from your cervix. 

A LEEP may be done to: 

  • Find out what causes an abnormal Pap test result 
  • Diagnose precancerous changes of the cervix and cervical cancer 
  • Treat precancerous conditions of the cervix and carcinoma in situ in the cervix 


Hysterectomy is the removal of the womb (uterus). Other parts of the uterus and organs may also be removed. This surgery may be done due to a varying number of reasons, including:

  • Fibroid tumours
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Cancer
  • Blockage of the bladder or intestines

With the removal of uterus, women who undergo this surgery will lose the ability to conceive and no longer menstruate.

Tubal Ligation

Also known as having your tubes tied or sterilization, tubal ligation is a permanent form of contraception whereby a woman’s fallopian tubes are cut, blocked, clipped, or completely removed. A tubal ligation disrupts fertilization of eggs by sperm and implantation of an embryo.

Tubal ligation may be suitable for adult women who are certain they do not want children. The advantage of the procedure is an effective method of birth control and a lowered risk of ovarian cancer.

Endometrial Ablation

A procedure to destroy the lining of a woman’s uterus (endometrium).  The objective of the surgery is to stop or reduce heavy menstrual bleeding. Endometrial Ablation may be suitable for women who experience:

  • Excessively heavy periods
  • Bleeding that lasts more than eight days
  • Anaemia from excessive blood loss
  • Exhausted other alternatives such as medications and IUD

While conception can still occur after endometrial ablation, it poses an increased risk for miscarriage due to impaired uterus or an ectopic pregnancy. It is highly recommended this procedure be only performed on women who do not plan to conceive.


Laparoscopy is the procedure whereby a camera, contained in a fine tube, is inserted through a tiny (keyhole) incision in the abdomen to inspect a women’s pelvic organs. Gynaecologic laparoscopies are generally performed to check the abdomen and its organs for:

  • Abdominal bleeding
  • Infections
  • Pelvic pain and problems
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Fibroids
  • Fallopian tubes

A laparoscopy is usually performed to treat endometriosis, or when the results of physical exams such as X-Ray or CT scan are inconclusive.


Laparotomy is a surgical procedure to examine the insides of a person’s abdomen for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Examples include:

  • Establish the spread of diseases such as cancer or endometriosis
  • Abdominal pain or trauma
  • Peritonitis
  • Internal bleeding
  • Emergency situations

Unlike laparoscopy, laparotomy is considered to be an “open” procedure. The incision made during surgery will be comparatively larger to allow surgeons to inspect various organs and tissues.

Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly benefit the patient, allowing for a full recovery. If you have gynaecological concerns, fix an appointment with our specialist today.

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